Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Article
Brief Report
Case Report
Commentary
Community Case Study
Editorial
Image
Images
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Mini Review
Obituary
Original Article
Perspective
Review Article
Reviewers; List
Short Communication
Task Force Report
Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Article
Brief Report
Case Report
Commentary
Community Case Study
Editorial
Image
Images
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Mini Review
Obituary
Original Article
Perspective
Review Article
Reviewers; List
Short Communication
Task Force Report
View/Download PDF

Translate this page into:

Review Article
59 (
4
); 175-185
doi:
10.1055/s-0043-1775599

A Comprehensive Review on Applicability and Bioactivity of Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L-Oil): Unani Prospective

Department of Medicine, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, Erragudda, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Address for correspondence Asif Ahmad Khan, MD, Department of Medicine, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, A.G Colony Road, Opposite ESI Hospital, Erragudda, Hyderabad 500038, Telangana, India (e-mail: asifahmadkhan77@gmail.com).
Licence
This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Disclaimer:
This article was originally published by Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd. and was migrated to Scientific Scholar after the change of Publisher.

Abstract

Sesame oil has a long history of usage as a food and medicine. It is the most used oil as a medicine or as a base oil for preparations of many compound drugs in the Unani system of medicine. It has a wide range of biological activities as mentioned in Unani classical text; this review highlights its pharmacological activities and their possible mode of action. Searched many Unani classical literature online and offline and simultaneously did parallel search on databases like PubMed, and Science Direct, and extraction of data related to sesame oil, sesame seeds with its pharmacological activities, mode of action, then interpretation and summarization of all related data. Sesame oil possesses many biological activities like anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, analgesic, emollient, antipruritic, and wound healing effects, which were scientifically demonstrated as mentioned in Unani literature. Sesame oil has a hopeful effect on modulating diseases with no significant toxic effect; so, there is a need to identify its safety and efficacy on human subjects to develop a new potential drug.

Keywords

pharmacology
Rogan-I-Kunjad
sesame oil
Sesamum indicum L.
Unani medicine

Introduction

Rogan-I-Kunjad (sesame oil) is obtained from the seeds of Sesamum indicum L., a herbaceous annual plant in the family of the Pedaliaceae, and is grown for its palatable seeds, oil, and therapeutic uses.1 Sesame seeds are said to be the earliest oil seeds used by humans. Their farming practices were more than 5000 years old. Sesame comes in various varieties, with the earliest wild species being found in Africa and India. It is widely used as food, medicine, and in ceremonial or spiritual rites. The entire seeds are commonly utilized in cuisines throughout Asia and the Middle East. In North America and Europe, it is used as a flavoring and garnish for a variety of meals, including bread.2 Sesame oil is regarded as a nutrient-dense food since it is stable, rich in medicinal benefits, and has a high nutritional quality, giving it an edge over other vegetable oils.3 Nowadays with increasing awareness of the importance and long-term benefits of traditional or herbal medicines, the global traditional medicine industry has started growing rapidly, resulting in a rise in demand and use of herbal products. In 2020, the global market for herbal medicine was estimated to be around US$ 185 billion. The industry is estimated to expand at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 11% to around US$ 430 billion by 2028.4 This has contributed to an increased demand for sesame seeds, as they are considered nutritious and have various health benefits. However, it is important to note that the status of sesame seeds in the Indian market is that India is one of the largest producers of sesame seeds in the world and will produce 0.75 million metric tons of sesame seeds in FY (Financial Year) 2023.5 India exported 328.46 tons of sesame seeds worth 3012.31 in 2015 to 2016.6 Sesame oil exports from India totaled 798.58 thousand tons in April 2023 FY, down from 880.51 thousand tons in the corresponding period of April 2022 FY.7

Sesame oil, seeds, roots, and leaves are utilized for a variety of therapeutic purposes. African and Asian nations use sesame more frequently as a traditional medicine.8 Sesame seeds and their oil have great importance in the Indian System of Medicine, especially in the Unani system of medicine dealing with a wide range of illnesses like inflammation, asthma, dry cough, constipation, dysuria, wounds, neurodegenerative disorders, musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, alopecia, and thrombosis.9,10

The purpose of the current review is to summarize and keep updated the information that is currently accessible on the morphology, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and most significantly, pharmacological utilization of Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L. oil), along with their possible mode of action based on scientific parameters. The main goal of this review is to perform a critical analysis of the Unani medical literature about the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of Rogan-I-Kunjad, which will be supported by data from reliable sources. Such observations may help researchers to gain insight to develop novel therapeutic approaches for a wide array of diseases with minimal toxicity, promoting the overall health and well-being of society.

Methodology

In this review article, the data are generated by COPE guidelines. The source of data is Avicenna's “Al-Qanun-fil-Tibb” (The Canon of Medicine), Al-Jami-li-Mufradat-Al-Adwiya-wal-Aghziya, Muhit-I Azam, Khazain-ul-Advia, etc. The source was searched for equivalent (Urdu, Persian, Arabic) words for “Rogan-I-Kunjad,” “Tukham-I-Kunjad,” “simsim,” and “Til. A parallel search in databases like PubMed and Science Direct was done by using keywords with appropriate Boolean operators (“AND” and “OR”) “Sesamum indicum,” “Sesame oil,” “phytochemical,” “pharmacology” “Medicinal use,” “preclinical study,” and other relevant terms. Title, abstract, and keywords were used for screening the literature for potential articles. The full text of these articles was then used to extract relevant data. The duration of data was from the past 10 years (►Table 1). The author visited the library of the National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for skin disorders to find out relevant data from unpublished Unani literature and the botanical name of the plant was confirmed from an authentic website namely The plant list.

Table 1 Keys terms used for search in this review
Database Keyword used No of articles
PubMed Sesamum indicum, sesamum indicum AND phytochemistry, sesame oil, animal study on sesame 471
Science Direct Sesamum indicum and transcriptional regulation, pharmacological action 608

Observation

Taxonomy of Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

Kingdom: Plantae—(plant), Subkingdom: Tracheobionta(vascular plants), Superdivision: Spermatophyta—(seed plants), division: Magnoliophyta—(flowering plants), Class: Magnoliopsida—(dicotyledons), Subclass: Asteridae, Order: Scrophulariales, Family: Pedaliaceae—Sesame, Genus: Sesamum, Species: S. indicum L.11

Habitat and Distribution of Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

The suitable soil for satisfactory production of sesame is on soils with a pH range of 5.4 to 6.7 but is seriously affected by pH below this critical range. These, however, do not tolerate heavily salted or waterlogged soils well. Ninety to one-hundred twenty frost-free days are required for commercial sesame production. Over 23°C (73°F) warm conditions are favorable for growth and yields.12 It is cultivated all over the world and in India it is widely distributed in Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.13

Morphology of Seeds of Sesamum indicum L

Macroscopic

The seeds are compressed, ovoid, pear-shaped pointed at one end and broader at the other end, approximately 3 to 4 mm long, 2 mm broad, 1 mm thick; an indistinct longitudinal ridge running through the center of one of the sides represents the position of the raphe, other ridges run around each side near the edge, and the hilum lies at the pointed end.14 The color of sesame seeds is of three types that are white, black, and Red/brownish red.9,15 It has an oily taste without any characteristics or smell.

Microscopic

The diagrammatic transverse section (TS) of the seed is oval with four elevated arrow ridges, one at each end of its long axis, and a faint raphe ridge on one side. Underneath the testa, a narrow, hefty cotyledon is positioned in the center, taking up most of the section. The longitudinal section of the seed has an oval shape that narrows at one end, and the embryo is straight, with two big piano-convex cotyledons and a little cylindrical radicle pointing in the direction of the hilar end.14

A detailed TS of the seed reveals the outer epidermis of the testa, which is made up of compact, palisade-like cells with sinuous walls that are radially extended. At the periphery of each cell is a cluster crystal of calcium oxalate that is encased in a thick spherical membrane. The cell under the ridges is devoid of such crystals; beneath this layer is a short band of tegmen and a collapsed parenchyma. The endosperm is a narrow, parenchymatous layer that varies in thickness, being 2 to 3 in rows at the margins and 4 to 5 on the sides. The embryo's cotyledons exhibit one layer of palisade cells next to the inner epidermis, with isodiametric cells making up the majority of the ground tissue. There were aleurone grains and oil globules inside the embryo and endosperm cells.14

Characteristics of Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

As per the Unani classical text, sesame oil of the Indian verity is pale yellow to golden in color, while some of its verities are also dark yellowish in color. The oil which is extracted from Gair Mukasher (with covering) and Gair Birya Kunjad (without roasted) is known as Dahn-ul-Heel and its color is dark brownish, having a different flavor with mucilaginous, more stickiness, and the oil that is derived from Gair Mukasher (with covering), and Birya Kunjad (roasted seeds) is light pale yellow in color with less stickiness.9,11 According to a study, the amount of lignans, tocopherols, and sterols in the oil produced from roasted sesame seeds was much lower than that of unroasted sesame seeds. The extracted oil's oxidative stability, and antiradical activity were all increased by roasting. In seeds oil roasted at high temperatures, a modest increase in Trans Fatty Acids (TFA) as well as triglyceride and diglyceride dimers was noted. For obtaining highly nutritious grade oil within the allowable range, 210 °C was the ideal roasting temperature. Utilizing this roasted sesame oil seed in plant-based diets may result in improved nutritional quality due to the great antioxidative efficacy of roasted seed oil.8,16 Refined sesame seeds have more oxidative stability than unrefined sesame seeds oil due to more saturated fatty acids (SFA) and less Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and Polyunsaturate Fatty Acid (PUFA). The TOTOX value of refined sesame oil was significantly lower than unrefined. Oil processing was introduced as an effective way to reduce heavy metals.17 The temperament of the sesame oil is Har (hot) and Ratab (moist) in second grade and it is liquid at standard room temperature (37 °C).9,10,18,19 As mentioned in classical Unani literature called “Muhit-i-Azam” by renowned Unani philosopher “Hakim Azam Khan,” the oil derived from the white luster surface seeds of sesame is the best form of sesame oil.9 Much research has been done on its genotypic verities with their significant characteristics. The comparison of the quality of oil derived from different types of sesame seeds showed that oil from white-colored seeds is the best in terms of its oil-yielding capacity, protein, PUFA, and MUFA. This indicates that light-colored seeds that are white and tan are superior in their quality and good for consumption as well as medicinal use20 (►Table 2). Its life span is 2 years for its best use because it is prone to decomposing its phytochemicals and starting to oxidize and become rancid.21

Table 2 Characteristics features of Rogan-I-Kunjad from different types of sesame seeds
Sr. no Coat color of seeds Oil yielding capacity Protein% MUFA PUFA SFA Ref
1 White 51.80% 20.00% 37.61% 46.03% 5.48% 20
2 Black 34.33% 14.87% 37.91% 44.34% 4.48%
3 Red/brownish red 42.48% 18.02% 37.41% 46.66% 4.53%

Abbreviations: MUFA, Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acids; PUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids.

Composition of Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

Sesame seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids that is (43.62%) monounsaturated fatty acids (41.53%) and only (14.85%) SFA natural antioxidants, lignans like sesamin 0.07–0.61%, sesamolin 0.2–0.48%, sesaminol, sesamol, pinoresinol), (►Fig. 1) sterols (16–40%), and tocopherol derivatives (10–12%) claiming that oils with this quality are suitable for consumption.1,8,22 The sesame oil extracted from white and black varieties of seeds contains 14.90% and 14.70% carbohydrates, respectively.23 Its seeds are a rich source of protein (18–40%).24 These bioactive components improve sesame oil's stability and shelf life, as well as provide several health advantages (►Table 3).

Table 3 Constituents of Rogan-I-Kunjad
Sr.no Bioactive compounds Name of components Organ studied Quantity References
1 Fatty acids SFA
Palmitic acid (16:0)
Margaric acid (17:0)
Stearic acid (18:0)
Arachidic acid (20:0)
Behenic acid (22:0)
Lignoceric acid (24:0)
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
14.20 g/100 g
8.9 g/100 g
4.8 g/100 g
63
MUFA
Palmitoleic acid (16:1)
Oleic acid (18:1)
Gadoleic acid (20:1)
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
39.70 g/100 g
0.2 g/100 g
39.3 g/100 g
0.2 g/100 g
63,64
PUFA
Linoleic acid (18:2)
Linolenic acid (18:3)
Seeds
Seeds
41.7 g/100 g
41.3 g/100 g
0.3 g/100 g
63,64
2 Lignans Sesamin
Sesamolin
Sesaminol
Sesamolinol
Triglucoside
Pinoresinol
Aerial part, seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
6.20 mg g−1
2.45 mg g−1
0.01 mg g−1
58 mg/100 g
65,66
3 Tocopherol derivatives γ Tocopherol Seeds 0.68 mg g−1 63,67
4 Phytosterols B Sitosterol
Campesterol
stigmasterol
Δ5 avenasterol
Sitostanol
Campestanol
Aerial part, Flower
Flower
Areal part
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
2.63 mg g−1
1.35 mg g−1
0.47 mg g−1
0.82 mg g−1
0.04 mg g−1
0.02 mg g−1
68,69
5 Carbohydrates D-glucose
D-galactose
D-fructose
Sucrose
Raffinose
Stachyose
Planteose
Sesamose
Pentasaccharides
Hexasaccharides
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
3.24%
0.06%
2.63%
0.17%
0.24%
0.23%
0.59%
0.38%
0.16%
0.08%
70
6 Protein Albumin
Globulin
Prolamin
Glutelin
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
Seeds
8.6%
67.3%
1.4%
6.9%
71
7 Phenolic acid Ferulic,
Vanillic
Cinnamic
p-coumaric
4-hydroxybenzoic
Protocatechuic acid
Gallic acid
72,73
Fig. 1
Lignans of Rogan-I-Kunjad (sesame oil).

Uses of Rogan-I-Kunjad as per Unani System of Medicine

According to the Unani system of medicine, this oil has a hot and dry temperament, which is very much favorable for the person of Sawdāwī-al-Mizāj (Malencolic temperament—A type of temperament caused by the predominance of Sawda' (black bile) in the body, which is cold and dry; individuals with this type of temperament have thin built with prominent veins, blackish skin—Standard Unani Medical Terminology [SUMT]-UMI-0161, WHO International Standard Terminology on Unani Medicine [IUMT]-3.1.176).9 This oil is widely used as a medicine in the Unani system of medicine for the management of many diseases like Iltihāb (inflammation—(SUMT)-UMI-2358), Surfa Yabsiyya (dry cough—[SUMT]-UMA-0311, National Unani Morbidity Code [NUMC]-D-7.6, International Classification of Diseases [ICD-10]-R.05), Dīq-un-nafas (asthma[SUMT]-UMA-0247, [NUMC]-D-4, [ICD-10]-J-45), Sudda (obstruction—[SUMT]-UNI-0484), Waja' al-Mafāṣil (arthritis [NUMC]-L-4), Ḥudār [rheumatism [NUMC]-L-3), Dā' al-Tha'laboratory (alopecia areata [NUMC]-J-16), Ṣudā' (cephalgia/headache [NUMC]-A-36), Shūṣa (pleurodynia [NUMC]-D-11), Ramad Sawdāwī (melancholic conjunctivitis [NUMC]-B-1.4), Qīḥ al-Ṣadr (Empyema thoracis [NUMC]-D-26), Qishr al-Ra's (seborrheic dermatitis [NUMC]-J-15) Saraṭan (carcinoma [NUMC]-M-17] as well as all types of Qurūh (ulcer—[SUMT]-UMA-0200) as its properties are described in Unani medicine as a Muliyyan (laxative), Muḥallil (resolvent—[SUMT]-UMI-1910), Mufattiḥ (obstruent—[SUMT]-UMI-1942), Mufattiḥ-i-urūq (vasodilator—[SUMT]-UMI-0753), Muḥallil-i-waram (anti-inflammatory), Mundamil-i-qurūh (cicatrizing), Mualid-e-mani (spermatogenic[SUMT]-UMI-1937),24,25,26 Hikka (pruritis—[SUMT]-UMI-1162, [NUMC]-J-57, [ICD-10]-L29-L29.9).6,7,16,19,25,26,27,28,29

Rogan-I-Kunjad compound compositions have long been employed in Unani medicine. Here, some of the compound compositions that are most frequently utilized were discussed. In case of alopecia areata, seborrheic dermatitis, or dandruff, a mixture of Rogan-I-Kunjad and Barg-I Murad (leaf of Myrtus communis L.) is applied over the scalp. Rogan-I-Kunjad with Aspaghol (Plantago ovata) is used as a liniment in xerosis, burn, and ulcer. Rogan-I-Kunjad in the form of Qairooti (Cerate or salve) is used for cosmetic purposes. Eye ointment made up of Rogan-I-Kunjad with egg white is intended to treat conjunctivitis and other inflammatory condition of the eye. Preparation in the form of ear drop made up of Rogan-I-Kunjad with Filfil safaid (Piper nigrum L.) and Mastagi (Pistacia lentiscus L.) is used for otalgia and ear obstruction. Rogan-I-Kunjad with Munaqqa (Vitis vinifera L.) is used in Ḥikka (pruritus) and a solution of Rogan-I-Kunjad with Rogan-I gul (rose oil) in Ṣudā' (headache) is used as an oral administration.9,18 Some of the marketed compound formulations of Rogan-I-Kunjad are mentioned in ►Table 4.

Table 4 Compound formulation of Rogan-I-Kunja d
Sl. no Drug name Action Therapeutic use Therapeutic doses/route of drug administration References
1 Raughan-E-Gul Anti-inflammatory, refrigerant, laxative/softener Acute arthritis Headache
Constipation
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
2 Raughan-E-Kaddu Shireen Hypnotic agent Insomnia
Meningitis Melancholia
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
3 Raughan-E-Kahu Hypnotic agent
Sedative
Insomnia
Epilepsy
Melancholia
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
4 Raughan-E-Luboob-E-Saba Hypnotic agent Insomnia Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
5 Raughan-E-Luboob-E-Saba Barid Hypnotic agent
Sedative
Insomnia, headache Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
6 Raughan-E-Turb Analgesic Otalgia Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
7 Raughan-E-Babuna Sada Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Arthritis, pneumonia Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
8 Raughan-E-Banafsha Sedative
Hypnotic agent
Headache
Insomnia
Ankylosing arthritis
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
9 Raughan-E-Amla Muqawwi-e-Shar (drug which enhance hair growth) Musawwid-e-Shar (drug which enhance hair color) Alopecia
Gray hair
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
10 Raughan-E-Amla Sada Muqawwi-e-Shar, Musawwid-e-Shar Alopecia
Gray hair
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
11 Raughan-E-Chahar Barg Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Arthralgia
Arthritis
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
12 Raughan-E-Haft Barg Nervine tonic Analgesic Paralysis
Facial palsy
Arthritis
Flaccid palsy
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
13 Raughan-E-Qust Nervine tonic Paralysis Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
14 Raughan-E-Surkh Anti-inflammatory Arthritis
Gout
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 74
15 Raughan-E-Hina Anti-inflammatory, analgesic Arthralgia ulcers Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 75
16 Raughan-E-Bars Blood purifier rubefacient, sedative Vitiligo, pityriasis
alba
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 75
17 Raughan-E-Dhatura Nerve stimulant, Nervine tonic Paralysis
Facial palsy
Arthritis
Flaccid palsy
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 75
18 Raughan Beer Bahooti Aphrodisiac Erectile dysfunction Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 76
19 Raughan-E-Benazeer Brain tonic Cerebrasthenia baldness Asthenopia/Amblyopia Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 77
20 Raughan-E-Muqawwi-E-Asab Nerve stimulant, nervine tonic
Analgesic
anti-inflammatory
Neuralgia
Paralysis
Facial paralysis
Polyarthritis
Myalgia
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 77
21 Marham-E-Dakhliyun Anti-inflammatory Uterine ulcer
Vaginitis
Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 76
22 Marham-E-Kafoor Antiseptic Ulcer Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 76
23 Marham-E-Saeeda Chob Neemwala Anti-inflammatory Piles Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 76
24 Tila Aroosak Nerve stimulant, Nervine tonic Erectile dysfunction Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 76
25 Tila Benazeer Aphrodisiac Erectile dysfunction Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 77
26 Zimad Muqawwi Aphrodisiac Erectile dysfunction Quantum Satis (Q.S)/Local Application (L.A) 77

Phytochemicals in Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

There have been various types of phytochemicals isolated from seeds, seed oil, and other parts of the sesame plant, including polyphenols (whole plant), Phytate 5.18%, oxalic acid 2.2%, tannins 5.26mg/100 g, sterols (seeds), phenols (seeds), naphthoquinones (roots), anthraquinones (roots), triterpenes (seeds), cerebroside (flower), fatty acids (seeds), vitamins (seeds), essential amino acids (seeds, leaf, stems, flower), carbohydrates (seeds), and other organic compounds.2 (►Table 3) However, higher amounts of sesamin (2.45 mg/g seed) and sesamolin (1.10 mg/g seed) were observed for Indian sesame species when compared with 65 sesame seeds harvested in Texas, United States (1.63 mg/g seed for sesamin and 1.01 mg/g seed for sesamolin).30

Pharmacological Activities of Rogan-I-Kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.)

Antinociceptive Effect

In the Unani system, sesame oil has Muskin-I Alam (analgesic) and Muhalil-I warm (anti-inflammatory) properties and is used for the treatment of pain.9,10 In an animal model of pain induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced writhing response, tail immersion, and hot plate latency test. It was shown that sesame oil caused significant reduction in abdominal writhes and sesamin inhibited biphasic paw licking response as compared with morphine. In the hot plate, latency time was increased after 60-minute administration of the drug31 (►Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
Pharmacological target for Rogan-I-Kunjad (sesame oil).

Inflammation and Sesame Oil

Sesame oil showed a potential anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced inflammatory animal models. Sesame oil reduced paw edema after 3 hours of drug administration. In model of pleurisy induced using intrapleural carrageenan, sesame oil inhibits accumulation of exudate as compared with indomethacin.31 Another study on (LDLR−/−) female mice showed a significant reduction in proinflammatory cytokines like monocytes chemoattractant protein-1, normal T-cells expressed and secreted, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and chemokines ligand 16 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory gene IL-13, IL-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-3β and 3α.32 An in-vitro study was conducted on RAW 264.7 cells, which showed an inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-1, TNF-2, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, vascular cell adhesion protein-1, and granulocytes-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by application of aqueous extract of sesame oil.33 In an animal model wherein acute inflammation was induced by monosodium urate monohydrate crystals, the study showed sesame oil significantly reduced inflammation after 6 hours of administration, and significantly decreased total cell count, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and mast cells in tissue pouch and skin tissue34 (►Fig. 2).

Pulmonary Diseases and Sesame Oil

In a study on an animal model of allergic asthma, ovalbumin (10 mg intraperitoneal) induced pulmonary edema and inflammation in female BALB/c mice, sesame oil showed a significant reduction in lung weight (wet-to-dry) as a result of improvement in pulmonary edema and significant decreases in proinflammatory cytokines (IL)-1β and IL-6, as well as total cell count and neutrophils; biomarkers like nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were also downregulated. This showed that sesame oil has the potential in treating allergic asthma.35 Another preclinical study on an allergic asthma model treated with lignan of sesame oil called sesamin showed a significant decrease in cytokines of T-helper cell-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) and increase in interferon-gamma, and inhibited the production of IgE as well as decreased NF-κB P65 level by blocking the phosphorylation of IκB-α and P38 MAPK pathways36 (►Fig. 2).

Cardiovascular Diseases and Sesame Oil

Sesame oil (5%) significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apo A, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) in comparison to the hypercholesteremic diet (1% cholesterol) in the rat model.37

A randomized, triple-blind, crossover clinical study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of sesame oil on the APOA-1 gene in adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The result showed no significant differences in TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, apo A, apo B, or lipoprotein (a); however, significant differences were observed in LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios, blood pressure, as well as cardiovascular risk scores.38 A study was conducted on a hypertensive animal model induced with cardiac hypertrophy using an injection of deoxycorticosterone and 1% sodium chloride. Sesame oil showed significant reduction in the size of cardiomyocytes, cardiac renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin- II, and downregulated the expression of angiotensin receptor type-1, p38 MAPK, and JNK.39 In a two-phase clinical trial, the first phase (acute phase) involved 30 hypertensive participants who consumed 35 g of sesame oil and were given corn or olive oil as a comparison. After 15 minutes, the objective parameters were observed, and the second phase (chronic phase) involved 60 days of treatment before the participants were evaluated. The study showed significant improvement in flow-mediated dilatation, and a significant decrease in intracellular adhesion molecule was observed after 60 days of treatment.40 An antithrombotic activity was examined in animals by inducing thrombus using He–Ne laser; the sesame seeds significantly inhibited thrombosis in mice41,42 (►Fig. 2).

Hepatic Diseases and Sesame Oil

In a study on C57BL/6J mice, a steatohepatitis animal model, sesame oil showed a significant reduction in hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by downregulating both sterol element binding proteins (SREBPs)—SREBP-1 responsible for the synthesis of FAS enzyme and SREBP-2 responsible for synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)—and increased fatty acid oxidation by upregulating Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha (PPAR-α) expression responsible for synthesis of CTP-1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), stress and apoptosis maskers like glucose-regulated protein-78, protein kinase like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α, and X-box-binding protein-1 were significantly reduced; these markers showed there was significant improvement in ER stress, and apoptosis biomarkers like BAX, caspase-3, caspase-9, and C/EBP homologous proteins were also reduced.43 On an animal model another study on nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis was conducted, and it was found that there was a significant decrease in the degree of steatosis, activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), α-SMA expression, fibrotic collagen, SGPT, SGOT, and upregulated PPAR-γ expression.44,45 (►Fig. 2).

Carcinoma and Sesame Oil

A preclinical study was conducted on C57BL/J6 mice, in which the mice survived that received whole-body γ-radiation with sesame oil compared with the control group due to the ability of sesame oil to diminish MN frequency in nucleated bone marrow cells and eliminate apoptotic cells. This study also demonstrated significant improvement in B-cell (CD 19) and T-cell (CD 4 and CD 8), decrease in TBARS, and significant enhancement in splenocytes proliferation in pretreated sesame oil mice.46 An in-vitro study was conducted on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, that is, HSC-3 (tongue cell line), FaDu (pharynx cell line), and Ca9–22 (Gingiva cell line) to understand the anticancer and anti-metastatic effect of sesamin. This study showed there was a marked reduction in cell mortality, invasion, and migration in all cell lines at 40 µM of sesamin. There was downregulation of MMP-2 expression in HSC-3 and FaDu by 23 and 19%, respectively, and also downregulation of P-p38 and pJNK1/2 expressions leading to inhibition of MAPK pathway. It indicates that sesamin inhibits the synchronized movement of the tumor cell population.47 In an in vitro study on colon cell lines, Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Line (HT-29) and Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-111) demonstrated that ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum L (ESL) significantly enhanced the radical scavenging activity and decreased cell growth in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. The same study revealed a 3.2-fold increased population in sub-G1, G1/M by 2.3–6.6 population and reduction in G0/G1 and S phase of cell cycle as compared with control, which indicates that ESL significantly arrests cell cycle at G2/M.48 An in vitro study was conducted on a lung adenoma cancer cell line to demonstrate the anticancer effect of sesame oil which showed that there was marked decrease in cell viability and enhancement in apoptotic activity by upregulation of Bax, PARP, TRAIL-R1, and TRAIL-R2 and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression.49 An in vivo study was conducted to demonstrate the anticarcinogenic effect of sesame oil on serous papillary ovarian carcinoma. The result of this study indicated that there was a significant reduction in the size of the tumor, as well as downregulation of many metabolic enzymes responsible for cellular metabolism and growth and singling pathways like hypoxia inducible factor-1, ER pathways, and proteoglycans.50 Another study on adult UChB, an experimental model of ovarian cancer, showed the anticancer effect of melatonin, while the result showed there were significant increases in plasma melatonin and downregulation of Her-2, p38 MARK, and p-AKT expression51 (►Fig. 2).

Male Sexual Health and Sesame Oil

An animal study was conducted on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to demonstrate the effect of sesame on testicular structure and male reproductive parameters. Sesame oil showed a significant improvement in histopathological changes and prevented testicular atrophy as compared with diabetic control; also, there were significant increases in male reproductive parameters, i.e., follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone, and decreases in serum glucose level in sesame-treated group as compared with control group.52 Male Sprague Dawley rats were used in an animal study to show the impact of melatonin on epididymis and sperm characteristics after exposure to fructose and bisphenol A. This study showed marked improvement in epididymis morphology, enhancement of sperm motility, and reduction in apoptotic sperm cells in the 20 mg/kg melatonin-treated group as compared with the fructose and bisphenol A group.53 Another animal study was conducted on cyclophosphamide-induced spermatogenic dysfunction in which sesamin showed significant increases in the weight of testis, sperm concentration and motility, Johnsen's score, RNF8 expression, ub-H2A, and ub-H2B, and reverse morphological damage of sperm as well as testicular tissue derangement, significantly lowering the H2A and H2B54 (►Fig. 2).

Arthritis and Sesame Oil

In an animal model of osteoarthritis, sesame oil significantly reduced muscular oxidative stress by decreasing LPO and ROS, and increased GSH level, GPx, and Nrf-2 expression after 7 days of administration.55 A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial on knee arthritis was conducted to find out the effect of topical application of sesame oil, in which the result showed significant improvement in participants' walking speed, knee flexion angle, VAS, and WOMAC, after 4 weeks of intervention; this result suggested that sesame oil has a significant effect on OA.56 The effect of sesame seed extracts on Freund's complete adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis model showed that sesame oil markedly reduced paw volume, body temperature, IL-6, TNF-α, and ESR, and significantly upsurges spontaneous activity, body weight, hemoglobin, and RBC57 (►Fig. 2).

Discussion

Rogan-I-Kunjad (sesame oil) is derived from seeds of kunjad (Sesamum indicum L.) widely used as edible oil as well as a medicine in many traditional systems of medicine; for example, in the Unani system of medicine Rogan-I-Kunjad is a well-known drug for the treatment of various Sawdāwī-Amrāz (melancholic diseases) diseases like asthma, arthritis, rheumatic arthritis, xerosis, pruritus, ulcer, obstructive pathology, headache, and carcinoma.58 Additionally, Rogan-I-Kunjad has hot and moist temperament, owing to anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative, emollient, obstruent, resolvent, diuretic, and vasodilator properties of this drug. According to Unani philosophy of temperament, it has been well documented that the drugs having hot and moist temperament are used in the management of Sawdāwī-Amrāz (melancholic diseases).59,60 Sesame oil is a versatile oil, so it is important to look at the current pharmacological research on it to learn about its traditional uses as well as its possible mechanism of action. In this review, we discovered that the various ethnomedical uses of sesame oil, including their anti-inflammatory, anticholesterol, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, wound healing, and anti-infertility properties, have been confirmed by contemporary pharmacological investigations using a variety of in-vitro and in-vivo techniques.

The findings reported in all the studies suggest a promising effect of Rogan-I-Kunjad (sesame oil) targeting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, especially PGE2 and PGFα2 synthesis from arachidonic acid by downregulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme. It acts as a COX-2 inhibitor, blocking µ-opioid receptors. It also inhibits the migration of inflammatory cells like leucocytes and leukotrienes synthesis.61 Sesame oil, which contains active compounds such as sesamin, sesamol, melatonin, and pedaliin, acts as an anticancer agent by suppressing the phosphorylated JNK, p38 MAPKs, NF-κB, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby reducing abnormal cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α, and increasing the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2.33,62 Pedaliin also arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis by regulating caspase-3 and caspase-9.48 Sesamin and episesamin have potent anti-dyslipidemic effects by blocking SREBP-1, SREBP-2, and HMG-CoA reductase and activating PPAR-α.38 Sesame oil reduces oxidative damage and inhibits MAPK activation to modify cardiac RAS to alleviate LVH.39 Through a rise in cyclic nucleotides (i.e., cAMP) and inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation, sesamol has significant antiplatelet action.42 The limitation of this review article is that the studies included in this manuscript are of particular time duration and set field. As far as strength is concerned the manuscript included some of the clinical studies, preclinical studies, toxicological studies, in vivo, in vitro, in silico studies, and phytoconstituents. The main goal of this review article is to perform a critical analysis of the Unani medical literature about the nutritional and therapeutic benefits and their mechanism of action of chemical constituents found in Rogan-I-Kunjad.

Conclusion

Rogan-I-Kunjad is a medication that has been used since antiquity to cure and prevent a variety of ailments. However, it has been shown that the mechanism of action of Rogan-I-Kunjad showed its phytopharmacology. The in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models have sufficiently validated its phytopharmacology. The traditional literature showed the significance of Rogan-I-Kunjad. But there are still certain gaps that need to be filled. To begin with, Rogan-I-Kunjad's traditional pharmacological actions demand additional new pharmacological interpretations to clarify its fundamental mechanism; however, just a few recent researches have been conducted so far. Second, it has frequently been mixed with other Unani medicine, so drug interactions should be studied more thoroughly by traditional therapy. However, some of the clinical studies were conducted on cardiometabolic marker modulation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, etc., but there is a need to conduct more clinical as well as toxicological studies to generalize stronger evidence. It is important to document the complete pharmacological profiling of Rogan-I-Kunjad for its future prospective.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

  1. , , , . Value addition in sesame: a perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014;8(16):147-155.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  2. , , , . A comprehensive review on Sesamum indicum L.: Botanical, ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;281:114503.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. , , , , , . A review on nutritional and nutraceutical properties of sesame. J Nutr Food Sci. 2012;2:1-6.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. . WHO global centre for Traditional Medicine (GCTM) 5-May. 2022 Available at: WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (GCTM) | IBEF
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Production volume of sesame across India from financial year 2013 to 2022, with estimates until 2023 10-june. 2023 Available at: India: sesame production volume 2023 | Statista. Accessed on: 14 june;2023
    [Google Scholar]
  6. . Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. Government of India at: www.desagri.gov.in (accessed )
    [Google Scholar]
  7. . Department of Commerce. Ministry of Commerce and industry. Government of India Available at: SYSTEM ON INDIA's MONTHLY TRADE (Harmonised Classification of Commodities) (accessed )
    [Google Scholar]
  8. , , , , . Lignans of sesame (Sesamum indicum l.): a comprehensive review. Molecules. 2021;26(04):883.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. . . Azam. Muhit-I Azam (Volume IV). 1st ed. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM);; 2018:296-299.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. . Khazainul Advia. 2005:518-519. 521–522
    [Google Scholar]
  11. . Natural Resources Conservation Service. Plant database at: https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=SESAM (accessed )
    [Google Scholar]
  12. , . The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials & Industrial Products (Volume 5: R-Z) 2008:68-80.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. . India Biodiversity portal. at http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/265988#distribution (accessed )
    [Google Scholar]
  14. . Medicinal Plant Unit. Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants (Volume 6). Sesamum, New Delhi Indicum Linn. (Tila) 2008:259-268.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. , . Sesamum indicum L. Indian Medicinal Plants with Illustrations (Volume 8). 2nd ed. Dehradun: Oriental Enterprises; 2012:2559-2564.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. , , , et al. Effects of seed roasting temperature on sesame oil fatty acid composition, lignan, sterol and tocopherol contents, oxidative stability and antioxidant potential for food applications. Molecules. 2022;27(14):1-15.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. , , , et al. The chemical composition and heavy metal content of sesame oil produced by different methods: a risk assessment study. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;9(06):2886-2893.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. . Al Jami Li Mufradat Al Adwiya Wal Aghziya (Volume 2) New Delhi: Centeral Council Of Rasearch In Unani Medicine; 2003:75-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. . Bustan-Ul-Mufredat. 2nd ed. New Delhi.: Idara Kitabus Sifa;; 2002:196-197.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. , , . Variability for oil, protein, lignan, tocopherol, and fatty acid concentrations in eight sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes. Ind Crops Prod. 2021;164 DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2021.113355
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. . Nutraceuticals in sesame seeds and oil—a review. Beverage and Food World. 2009;36:19-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. , , , . Chemical composition of Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame) grown in southeastern Nigeria and the physicochemical properties of the seed oil. Seed Sci Biotechnol. 2010;4:69-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. . Chemical composition of sesame oil cake—review. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 2014;3:827-835.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. , . Chemical composition and oil quality of seeds of sesame accessions grown in the Nsukka Plains of South Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Agric Res. 2013;8:797-803.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. . Al Qanoon Fil Tibb (Urdu Translation by Gulam Hasan Kanturi) New Delhi, India: Idara Kitabus Sifa; 2008:710-713.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. . Kamil-Us-Sana. (Volume 4). 1st ed. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM);; 2010:237-239.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. . Kitab-Ul-Umda-Fil-Jarahat (Urdu Translation) New Delhi:: Central Council of Research in Unani Medicine;; 2000:71-75.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. . Makhzan-Ul-Mufradat-Al-Maruf-Ul-Khawas-Ul-Advia. New Delhi, India: Faisal Brothers; 2000:125-127.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. . Makhzan-ul-mufradat-wa-murakabat (Marruf ba) Khawas-ul-Advia. 2007:96.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. , , , , . Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed. Oilseeds: Health Attributes and Food Applications 2021
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. , , , et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesame oil and sesamin. Nutrients. 2014;6(05):1931-1944.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  32. , , , . Anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory actions of sesame oil. J Med Food. 2015;18(01):11-20.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  33. , , , , . Primary prevention of atherosclerosis by pretreatment of low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice with sesame oil and its aqueous components. Sci Rep. 2018;8(01):12270.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  34. , , , . Therapeutic effects of sesame oil on monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats. Springerplus. 2013;2:1-10.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. , , , , , . Sesame oil attenuates ovalbumin-induced pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation in mice. BioMed Res Int. 2013;2013:1-7.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. , , , , , . Sesamin attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12(06):4175-4181.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  37. , , , , . Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:365892.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. , , , et al. Association of rs670 variant of APOA-1 gene with cardiometabolic markers after consuming sesame, canola and sesame-canola oils in adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2020;38:129-137.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  39. , . Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPK activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;42:108-116.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  40. , , , et al. Sesame oil consumption exerts a beneficial effect on endothelial function in hypertensive men. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013;20(02):202-208.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  41. , , , , , . Experimental antithrombotic effects of sesame seed whole grains and extracts. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22(06):526-531.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  42. , , , et al. Black sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds extracts by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction: isotherms of global yield, kinetics data, total fatty acids, phytosterols and neuroprotective effects. J Supercrit Fluids. 2014;93:49-55.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  43. , , , , . Sesame oil lignans inhibit hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. J Funct Foods. 2017;37:658-665.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  44. , , , , . Sesame oil mitigates nutritional steatohepatitis via attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation: a tale of two-hit hypothesis. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25(02):232-240.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  45. , , , . Sesame oil attenuates nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis by modulating matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 and PPAR-γ. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25(03):337-344.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  46. , , , , . Protective effect of sesamol against Co γ-ray-induced hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Free Radic Res. 2015;49(11):1344-1361.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  47. , , , , . Antimetastatic effects of sesamin on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Molecules. 2020;25(09):2248.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. , , , . In vitro antioxidant and anti-colon cancer activities of Sesamum indicum L. leaf extract and its major component, Pedaliin. Foods. 2021;10(06):1-13.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  49. , . Sesamol induced apoptotic effect in lung adenocarcinoma cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;254:109-116.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  50. , , , et al. Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals that diverse metabolic pathways are influenced by melatonin in an in vivo model of ovarian carcinoma. J Proteome Res. 2016;15(10):3872-3882.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  51. , , , , , . Melatonin attenuates Her-2, p38 MAPK, p-AKT, and mTOR levels in ovarian carcinoma of ethanol-preferring rats. J Cancer. 2014;5(09):728-735.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  52. , , , . Sesame effects on testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2013;3(04):347-355.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. , , , et al. Effects of co-administered melatonin, fructose and bisphenol A (BPA) on rat epididymis and sperm characteristics. Biotech Histochem. 2020;95(01):18-26.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  54. , , , et al. Protective effects of sesamin on cytoxan-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction by regulating RNF8-ubH2A/ubH2B pathways in male mice. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:708467.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  55. , , . Daily sesame oil supplement attenuates joint pain by inhibiting muscular oxidative stress in osteoarthritis rat model. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;29:36-40.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  56. , , , et al. The efficacy of topical sesame oil in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized double-blinded active-controlled non-inferiority clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102183.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  57. , , , et al. Anti-rheumatoid activity of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum seed extract in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Wistar albino rats. J Tradit Complement Med. 2017;8(03):377-386.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  58. . Usool-I Tibb. 5th ed. New Delhi:: National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language;; 2011:68-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. . Kulliyat-I Nafeesi (Urdu Translation by Hakeem Mohammad Kabeeruddin). 1935:101-106. 679–683
    [Google Scholar]
  60. . Kulliyat-I Qanoon (Urdu Translation by Hakeem Mohammad Kabeeruddin). 2nd ed. New Delhi: Idara kitab-us-shifa;; 2015:243-258.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. , , , , , . Suppression of cyclooxygenase 2 increases chemosensitivity to sesamin through the Akt–PI3K signaling pathway in lung cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2019;43(01):507-516.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  62. , . Sesamol, a major lignan in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum): anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;855:75-89.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  63. . Food Data Central, Oil, sesame, Salad and Cooking. United State Department of Agriculture at: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/171016/nutrients (accessed )
    [Google Scholar]
  64. , , . Variation in fatty acid compositions, oil content and oil yield in a germplasm collection of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2008;85(12):1135-1142.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  65. , . Sesame lignans enhance antioxidant activity of vitamin E in lipid peroxidation systems. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;262(1-2):195-202.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  66. , , . HPLC analysis of sesaminol glucosides in sesame seeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(03):633-638.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  67. , , , , , . Sex differences in the inhibition of gamma-tocopherol metabolism by a single dose of dietary sesame oil in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(06):1723-1729.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  68. , , , , . A phytosterol database: Fatty foods consumed in Sweden and the Netherlands. J Food Compos Anal. 2007;20(3–4):193-201.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  69. . A comprehensive review on different classes of polyphenolic compounds present in edible oils. Food Res Int. 2021;143:110312.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  70. , , . Physico-chemical properties of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) varieties grown in Northern Area, Ethiopia. Agric Sci. 2015;6(02):238.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  71. , , . Sesame protein isolate: fractionation, secondary structure and functional properties. Food Res Int. 2012;46(01):360-369.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  72. , , , , . Phenolics extracted from potato, sugar beet, and sesame processing by-products. Int J Food Prop. 2013;16(05):1148-1168.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  73. , , , . Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro. Food Chem. 2015;175:306-314.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  74. . National Formulary of Unani Medicine. 2006:189-204. Vol-1
    [Google Scholar]
  75. . National Formulary of Unani Medicine. 2006:98-111. Vol-4 121
    [Google Scholar]
  76. . National Formulary of Unani Medicine. 2008:116-118. Vol-5 125–128
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  77. . National Formulary of Unani Medicine. 2011:77-80. Vol-6 86–94
    [Google Scholar]
Show Sections